Solidity Vs. Rust: Key Differences Every Programmer Should Know
Since blockchain development is growing quickly, it’s important to choose the right tools for developers. What is the most important thing a developer needs to make blockchain or web3 solutions? The answer would point to languages like Solidity and Rust that are used to make smart contracts. Now, developers need to compare Solidity Vs. Rust before making a decision about which one to use for smart contract development.
On the Ethereum Virtual Machine or EVM, Solidity is the most popular way to build decentralised apps. On the other hand, developers working on dApp projects based on the Solana blockchain give Rust the most attention. Both programming languages have pros and cons that make them different from each other. Let’s find out the differences between Solidity Vs. Rust.
Before you can make a detailed comparison of Rust and Solidity, you need to know the basics of each language. The basic definitions of both languages, their characteristics, and the blockchains they support could be a good starting point for comparing them.
The Basics of Solidity
The first difference between Solidity and Rust is that Solidity is an object-oriented, statically typed, high-level programming language. Rust, on the other hand, is a dynamically typed language. It is the most popular programming language for putting smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain and other blockchain networks that can work with EVM.
In smart contract development, the object-oriented programming method puts more emphasis on data and objects than on logic and functions. Also, Solidity’s statically typed property ensures that different kinds of errors are found when the code is being put together.
Solidity is a high-level programming language, which means that it is easy to use and doesn’t depend on the architecture of the hardware. Solidity has been made to run on the EVM, which is a runtime environment that acts as a virtual machine for running software programmes or smart contracts. Aside from Ethereum, Polygon, Avalanche, Polkadot, Optimism, and Arbitrum are some well-known blockchain networks that support Solidity.
Solidity’s Important Parts
When answering questions like, “Is Solidity better than Rust?,” people would talk about what makes Solidity unique. Here are some of the most important things about Solidity that make it a popular choice for making smart contracts.
- Functions that are built-in
- Solidity doesn’t require developers to write conditional statements to do things that depend on certain conditions.
- Instead, developers could put the conditional statements right in the source code.
- The code would then do certain things when certain predefined conditions were met.
- In-Built Data Types
The answers to “Which is better, Solidity Vs. Rust?” would also talk about Solidity’s features, like its built-in data types. Solidity supports common data types like arrays, integers, strings, and floating-point numbers.
Rust, the other player in the Solidity vs. Rust debate, is a low-level programming language that can be used in many different ways. Rust focuses on performance and different kinds of safety to make sure that high-performance, reliable applications can be made. Rust is a low-level programming language that looks like a computer’s processor. So, it can help scripters write code that runs quickly and well on machines. On the other hand, Rust’s ability to support multiple programming paradigms means that it can be used for functional, procedural, and dynamic programming. The answers to “Is Solidity better than Rust?” would show how Rust is a core programming language on the Solana blockchain.
Rust’s Main Characteristics
If you know what makes Rust different, you can answer the question “Which is better, Solidity Vs. Rust?” with confidence. The programming language is similar to C++ but also has memory safety and type safety at compile time. A complete set of libraries and tools and the benefits of concurrency also help make programming workflows more efficient. Here are some of the most important parts of the Rust programming language.
Rust’s type interface is unique among programming languages because it makes sure that an expression is automatically typed.
Races between Threads with No Data
There is a set of rules for the threads without the data races feature. Because of this, ownership transmission only happens between people who own different objects or threads.
Abstraction at a low cost
When comparing Rust and Solidity, it’s important to point out that Rust makes zero-cost abstraction possible. In Rust programming logic, developers can add abstraction without affecting how fast the code runs. So, it could help improve the quality and readability of code without affecting how fast it runs.
Safety of Memory
Memory safety is one of the best things about the Rust programming language. Using the ownership system, Rust can make sure that memory is safe. In Rust programmes, variables take care of who owns the memory space and how it is used. At the same time, other variables can also temporarily take up memory space for a certain amount of time. So, Rust didn’t need garbage collection to keep track of objects during compilation to make sure memory safety.
The move semantics feature of the Rust programming language shows another difference between Solidity and Rust. Move semantics means that when the source object is temporary, a move operation is used instead of a copy operation.
Matching up patterns
Rust’s pattern-matching feature is another thing that makes it stand out. It lets you use match expressions with Rust patterns. Pattern matching helps programmers get a better handle on how control flows through their code. Variables, arrays, placeholders, and wildcards are some of the most common ways to combine patterns in the Rust programming language.
Solidity and Rust: A Comparison
A detailed overview of the basics of Solidity and Rust is the best way to start comparing Solidity and Rust. You should also learn about the differences and similarities between the two languages to figure out which one will work best for your needs. Also, the comparison of the two programming languages could include a comparison of how well each one works with the other. Let’s find out what Solidity and Rust have in common, what makes them different, and how they compare.
I had an argument with someone a few weeks ago about the benefits of Solidity as an (imperfect) smart contract language vs. doing things in Rust as Solana does. Looking at these exploit descriptions I feel pretty good about that.
— Matthew Green (@matthew_d_green) February 3, 2022
Rust and Solidity Have Some Things in Common
People who want to know “Is Solidity better than Rust?” often don’t know what they have in common. Turing completeness and the ability to work with multiple chains are the two most important things that Solidity and Rust have in common. Both of the programming languages are Turing complete, which means that they can be used to solve any computation problem.
On the other hand, multichain compatibility makes sure that the languages can be used to write code for more than one blockchain network. Solidity was made for Ethereum at first. But it also works with layer 2 blockchains, modular blockchains, and sidechains in addition to layer 1 blockchains that work with EVM. Rust also works with Solana and Near, which are two blockchain networks. Rust also has a way of doing things that is based on Polkadot’s substrate framework.
Solidity and Rust are not the same. The real answers to “Which is better, Solidity or Rust?” would be based on how the two programming languages differ in important ways. The main differences between Solidity Vs. Rust is in the languages they use and how they are programmed.
Let’s look at Solidity and Rust side by side and compare them in depth.
The main thing that makes Solidity and Rust different is the type of language they use. Solidity is a high-level programming language that can make it easier to understand the architecture of a computer system. Because of this, Solidity makes the programming language easier to learn and use. Rust, on the other hand, is a low-level programming language with a lot in common with how computers are built. So, it can guarantee better speed and use of memory. This makes it a language for machines.
Comparing Rust and Solidity is also important when it comes to the programming model. Programming paradigms are the styles or methods used to use programming logic to solve a certain problem. When it comes to solving problems with smart contract logic, Solidity uses an object-oriented approach. On the other hand, Rust has a programming style that uses more than one paradigm.
As a result, it can make it easier to use multiple programming paradigms to make logic programmes. Rust can be used in many popular ways of programming, such as object-oriented, functional, imperative, and dynamic.
Comparing Pros and Cons
The comparison between Solidity and Rust should also show how each language’s benefits differ. You can add to the Solidity vs. Rust debate by showing how development is better in one programming language than in the other. When you make dApps with Rust, the main benefits are memory safety, better speed, and high performance. Memory safety helps developers avoid making mistakes that have to do with memory. The borrowing and ownership principle is used in the rust programming language to make sure that memory is safe.
It could make sure memory is safe by getting rid of errors related to memory during compilation. With the promise of high speed and performance in Rust, the answers to “Is Solidity better than Rust?” can go in new directions. Developers could use Rust to make decentralised programmes that are fast and work well without having to rely on garbage collection.
A Look at the Tradeoffs
By looking at the pros of Solidity and Rust, you can get a better idea of which programming language you should use to make dApps. But the difference between Solidity and Rust should also include a look at the pros and cons of each language. Rust isn’t as easy to learn as Solidity, and compiling takes longer. These are two of the most obvious problems with using Rust instead of Solidity to make dApps. Rust uses the LLVM architecture, which is a low-level virtual machine, to make code.
Program compilation could take more than 10 minutes for big projects. On the other hand, the Solidity vs. Rust debate also talks about how hard it is to learn how to code in Rust. For instance, developers have a hard time understanding how ownership and borrowing work. Rust programmes also have to start from scratch when it comes to making the whole codebase.
On the other hand, comparing Solidity to Rust shows that it has a few problems as well. In earlier versions of Solidity, before Solidity 0.8, the integer overflow problem was a common issue. Because Solidity is Turing complete, it is hard to do static analysis. This is another problem with Solidity.